First Document of Breathing

In this composition, the deceased identifies him/herself as different deities, invokes various deities, and pleads to Thoth that he/she be justified like Osiris against enemies. Parts of this composition show strong influence of the Book of the Dead, such as Spells 18 and 42. The composition can be roughly dated to the mid-late Ptolemaic to Roman Period. This document should be placed under the head of the deceased.

Copies of the First Document of Breathing have already been published, but many unpublished or only partially published versions remain. All of them deserve to be re-examined and will allow a detailed analysis of the evolution of this composition.



In charge

Sandrine Vuilleumier


Papyrus / Document of Breathing / Textuality / Iconography / Owners


Coming soon